Cardanol is a meta substituted alkenyl phenol, derived from naturally occurring phenol viz. cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). Cardanol’s chemical structure contributes flexibility, chemical resistance, adhesion and greater hydrocarbon tolerance in the resins prepared from it. Cardanol is used in surface coatings, epoxy, varnishes, paints, printing inks, phenolic resins, rubber compounding, lacquers, laminates, friction materials, and adhesives. Cardanol is a naturally occuring Phenol manufactured from Cashew Nut Shell Liquid. It is a monohydroxyl Phenol having a long hydrocarbon Chain (C15H27) in the meta position.
The products obtained from Cardanol have many advantages over these manufactured from other substituted Phenols. It is therefore widely used in the manufacture of surface coatings, Insulaating Varnishes, Oil and Alcohol soluble resins, Laminating resins, Rubber compounding, Azo dyes, etc. The components of commercial Cardanol differes in the degree of unsaturation Of the side chain but for the practical purposes it can be represented by the following formula.
C6H4(OH)-(CH2)7-CH=CH-CH2-CH=CH(CH2)2 -CH3
The average unsaturation of about two double bonds in the side chain of the Cardanol molecules make cross linking easy and give a satisfactory gradual drying and baking properties to paints prepared from it. Because of its peculiar structure Cardanol Varnishes have high electric Insulation, greater resistance to water chemicals and good flexibility. The long hydrocarbon side chain imparts to Cardanol aldehyde condensate greater solubility in drying Oils such as linseed DCO,or tung Oil and aliphatic hydrocarbons.Cardanol can be substituted by 30% in phenolic resins used for phenol bonded resins for plywood and lamination industries.
Water solubale PCF resin(phenol, cardanol pharmaldehyde resin): We develop PCF resin by substituting 30% cardanol in phenolic resins. The resins will give additional property of antifungus and antithermic when used in plywood industries. In lamination industries it gives additional advantage in non-edge cracking and also cost saving.



Oil Soluble Resins
The meta substitution and the long hydrocarbon chain in its molecule makes the resins prepared with Cardinol, highly soluble in oils and impart superior properties such as high electric insulation and resistance against chemicals to its films. It is to manufacture both solid and semi solid resol or novolac type of resins depending upon the nature of catalyst and the aldehyde compound.Cardanol resin varnishes have good electrical insulating properties and resistance against water and chemicals. They give superior quality Stamping Varnishes. Because of their high insulation and dielectric losses, these varnishes are preferred to compositions based on usual Phenol such as Cresol or Substituted phenols.
Surface Coatings and Paints
Cardanol resin Varnishs in addition to water and Chemical resistance have good air drying and baking properties. These compositions are suitable for wood finishes, food can lacquers taxtile bobins and high quality paints. Stoving paints can be prepared which could be baked at 60°C. The Cardanol based resins have good compatibility with other synthetic resins such as alkydes, epoxies chlorinated rubber, Phenolic etc., and can serve as raw material for variety of paints. Lamination Industry
By partly replacing the Phenol or Cresol in alcohol soluble resins used for Lamination one could prepare resins which imparts greater flexibility resistance to Chemical and water, and superior electrical insulation to the lamination sheets
Surface Active Agent
Sulphonated ether of Cardanol has been found to be wetting agent and finds use in Textile Industry, ethoxylated Tetrahydrocardanol Sulphonate performs better at high temperature than the detergents based on Dodoeyl benzene.
Chlorinated Cardanol is reported to have good insecticidal, pesticidal and germicidal properties. Cardanol Formaldehyde resin is also used as a solvent for well known pesticides such as Pyrethrin and Rotanes. Paranitro Tetrahydro Cardanol finds use as a coupling compound in sprayable pesticides such as Parathion.


Structural Formula OH C6H4C15H27 OH C6H4C15H27
Density 0.9272-0.9350 0.9272-0.9350
Viscosity at 30 °C 55.65(CP) 55.65(CP)
Melting point(Less than) 50 °C 50 °C
Volaties Maximum as per IS 101-1964 1% 1%
Ash Contents Negligible Negligible
Iodine Value IS 548-1964 (Catalytic Method) Min 250 Min 275
Acid Value Max 5 Max 5
Hydroxyl Value 180-190 180-190
Colour Gardener(Freshly Distilled) Light Brown Pale Straw
Moisture 1% V/V 1% V/V